Submission and publication guidelines

Follow the APA (American Psychological Association) bibliographic reference model: See manual at the following URL:


Quotes: up to three lines, run the quote along with the text using quotation marks; longer ones should be indented (1 cm from both the left and right hand margins), Times New Roman, font 10, without quotation marks. If the text is written in Portuguese, use «…», in English or any other language »…« or “…”.
Quoted material which has been translated must be included in the text in quotation marks, followed by the original quote in parentheses (without quotation marks). All quoted material in any other language but Portuguese must be translated into Portuguese and inserted in brackets [ ], leaving an empty line between the quote and the respective translation.

Identification: each author must indicate which institution he or she is affiliated with.

Illustrations / Graphs: numbered and with an explanatory caption.

Ellipses: highlight ellipses by way of using square brackets […]. When an original text that was quoted includes an ellipsis, use three dots inside a parenthesis […]. Foreground any omissions using three dots inside parentheses.

Italics: italicize phrases in foreign languages and titles of books.

Notes: format notes, footnotes, or endnotes using Times New Roman, font 10, single spaced, and numerated sequentially. The superscript number for the footnote should appear right after the punctuation mark.

Page numbers: these should appear on the lower right hand side.

Amount of pages: texts should not exceed 17 pages, including the notes and the bibliography.

Paragraphs: Paragraphs in the entire essay should be indented 1 cm.

Parentheses: use parentheses inside square brackets [(…) text]. See information in the Quotes section above.


Bibliographic citations: 
1. In the text, in parentheses, include the author’s surname/last name, followed by a comma, date of publication, followed by a colon and the page number.
(Santos, 2007: p. 15)
(Martins / Polónio, 1985: p. 35)
(Ribeiro et al., 1973: p. 25-30)

In case of a sequence of the same reference, should be used only ibid., followed by the number of the page(s) Example: (ibid.: p. 350).

1.1. When the author’s name is mentioned right before the bibliographic citation, simply indicate the dates and page numbers in parentheses.
Example: …as noted by António Santos (2007: p. 15).

1.2. If the material was quoted elsewhere (indirect quote), precede it by the word apud
Example: apud Melo, 2002: 55. In case of a paraphrase, precede it by the word cf. Example: (cf. Ramalheira, 2000: p. 505).


2. In the Works Cited page at the end of the essay, list all citations in alphabetical order (last name, first and middle names) and the chronological order of all works cited throughout the entire text, while indicating the publisher and the page numbers.

Examples (monographs, collections, anthologies, journals, dictionaries, online texts):
Ramalheira, A. M. P. (2002). Alcácer Quibir e D. Sebastião na Alemanha. Representações historiográficas e literárias (1578-ca. 1800). Coimbra, MinervaCoimbra / CIEG / Universidade de Aveiro.

Martines, E. (ed.) (1998). Cartas entre Fernando Pessoa e os Directores da Presença. Lisboa. Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda.

Coelho, M. H. da C. / Homem, A. L. de C. (eds.) (1999). A Génese do Estado Moderno no Portugal Tardo-Medievo (séculos XIII-XV). Ciclo Temático de Conferências Organizado pela Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa no Ano Lectivo de 1996/97. Lisboa: Universidade Autónoma Editora.

Mingocho, M. T. D. / Gil, M. de F. / Castendo, M. E. (coords.) (2011). Miscelânea de Estudos em Homenagem a Maria Manuela Gouveia Delille. 2 vols. Coimbra: Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Coimbra / Centro Interuniversitário de Estudos Germanísticos / MinervaCoimbra.

Barker, A. (2004-2005). Blood Oath/Prisoners of the Sun (1990) and the Return of the Japanese Prisoner of War Camp Movie. Revista da Universidade de Aveiro – Letras, vols. 21-22, pp. 25-34.

Diogo, A. T. (1991). O Cavalo de Sol. Colóquio de Letras, Lisboa, n.ºs 121-122, Julho/Dezembro, pp. 258-259.

Schulze, H. (1997). Estado e Nação na História da Europa. Trad. de M. Augusta Júdice e A. Hall. Lisboa: Presença. [Ed. original: (1992). Staat und Nation in der europäischen Geschichte. Munique: Beck].

Mexia, P. (2011). Parque da Pena. Expresso / Atual, 10-09, n.º 2028, p. 3. URL: (Acesso em       ).

Lucas, I. (2007). Saramago acusado de ser “incapaz de defender Portugal”. Diário de Notícias, 16.07. URL: (Acesso em       ).


3. When referring to articles with multiple authors in a collection of essays,
shorten the bibliographical citations.
Silva, R. (2007). John Steinbeck and Ernest Hemingway's Attitudes towards Otherness. In S. K. George / B. A. Heavilin (eds.), John Steinbeck and His Contemporaries. Lanham / Maryland: The Scarecrow Press, pp. 69-76.


4. When there are two or more references to the same author and to the same year, add to the date the letters a, b, etc. When referring to a work belonging to the same author, the date of his or her first work should include the letter a.


5. In situations with more than one reference to the same author, use a dash while omitting his or her name.


6. If the dates of the first edition are relevant, they may be added. Please include this information at the very end of the reference in brackets.
Example: [2nd ed., 1999].

References to something already alluded to: inside the body of the text, use the appropriate Latin phrases (cf. / vdsupra, cf. / vdinfra) in italics and without any abbreviations.

Titles: please center the title of the paper in bold letters, Times New Roman, font 14, followed by the respective English translation. Titles of books are italicized and titles of articles are in quotation marks. The use of quotation marks depends on the language in which the paper has been written (please see “Quotes” above). Titles of books included in the title of an article should be italicized. Citations included in the title of an article should be in single quotes.

Translations: when the author has chosen to translate quotes, he or she should leave a blank line between the quote and the respective translation. When the translation of the quote is incorporated onto the text, it should be placed within quotation marks followed by the original in parentheses, refraining from using quotation marks once again (vd. “Quotes” above). On bibliographical citations of translations, please see «Bibliographical citations» above.