The entrepreneurial competence in primary school curricula in Asturias (Spain): high ideals and sobering realities

Iván Diego Rodríguez, María del Canto de la Iglesia Ordóñez, Carlos Hevia-Aza, Priscille Marcillaud


The article discusses the positioning and framing of the entrepreneurial key competence in the regional Curriculum for Primary Schools in Asturias (Spain). Quantitative and qualitative content analysis of learning outcomes and evaluable learning standards, two key elements in the new curriculum, bring to the fore the lack of a clear learning progression for the development and acquisition of this key competence. The negative implications for programming and assessment of quality teaching and learning experiences in a competency-based curriculum are discussed and some potential courses of action are described.


entrepreneurship education; creativity; curriculum; learning progression; key competence

Texto Completo:



Assessment & Teaching of 21st Century Skills. (2012) Retrieved from:

Baird, J., Andrich, D., Hopfenbeck, T., & Stobart, G. (2017) Assessment and learning: fields apart?, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy &Practice, 24:3, 317-350, DOI: 10.1080/0969594X.2017.1319337

Bereczki, E. O. (2016). Mapping creativity in the Hungarian National Core Curriculum: a content analysis of the overall statements of intent, curricular areas and education levels. The Curriculum Journal, 27(3), 330-367.

Biggs, J. (2003). Aligning teaching for constructing learning. Higher Education Academy, 1-4.

CE (2007). Competencias clave para el aprendizaje permanente. Un marco de referencia europeo.

CE/EACEA/Eurydice (2016). Entrepreneurship Education at School in Europe. Eurydice Report. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union

Decreto 82/2014, de 28 de agosto, por el que se regula la ordenación y establece el currículo de la Educación Primaria en el Principado de Asturias

Diego, I., Vega, J.A (2016) La educación para el emprendimiento en el sistema educativo español. Año 2015. Colección EURYDICE ESPAÑA-REDIE. MECD.

Heilmann, G., & Korte, W. B. (2010). The Role of Creativity and Innovation in School Curricula in the EU27. A content analysis of curricula documents, European Commission Joint Research Centre Institute for Prospective Technological Studies.

Hesse, F., Care, E., Buder, J., Sassenberg, K., & Griffin, P. (2015). A framework for teachable collaborative problem solving skills. In Assessment and teaching of 21st century skills (pp. 37-56). Springer Netherlands.

James Popham, W. (2007) All About Accountability / The Lowdown on Learning Progressions Educational Leadership Vol 64, N7, p. 83-84. Retrieved from.

Kim, H. & Scoular, C. (2017) Learning Progressions: Road Maps for 21st Century Students – and Teachers. Stanford Social Innovation Review. Accessed 17 Jul 2017.

MECD (2014) Real Decreto 126/2014, de 28 de febrero, por el que se establece el currículo básico de la Educación Primaria

MECD (2015) Orden ECD/65/2015, de 21 de enero, por la que se describen las relaciones entre las competencias, los contenidos y los criterios de evaluación de la educación primaria, la educación secundaria obligatoria y el bachillerato.

Muñiz, J. et al (2014) Perfil de personalidad emprendedora en jóvenes: componentes y evaluación”Psicothema 2014, Vol. 26, No. 4, 545-553

National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (NCCA), (2010). Curriculum Overload in Primary Schools: An overview of national and international experiences. Retrieved from:

Peña, P. S., & Ollé, A. S. (2009). Evaluating the effects of decentralization on educational outcomes in Spain. Universitat de Barcelona, Facultat d'Economia i Empresa.

Plucker, J. A., & Beghetto, R. A. (2004). Why Creativity Is Domain General, Why It Looks Domain Specific, and Why the Distinction Does Not Matter. In R. J. Sternberg, E. L. Grigorenko, & J. L. Singer (Eds.), Creativity: From potential to realization (pp. 153-167).

Priestley, M., & Drew, V. (2016). Teachers as agents of curriculum change: closing the gap between purpose and practice. In European Conference for Educational Research, Dublin, 23-26 September 2016.

Rosendahl Huber, L., Sloof, R., & Van Praag, M. (2012). The effect of early entrepreneurship education: Evidence from a randomized field experiment.

Rubio, J. G. (2015). El proceso de descentralización educativa en España. Edetania, 48, 203-216. Retrieved from:

Sánchez, J. C. (2013). The impact of an entrepreneurship education program on entrepreneurial competencies and intention. Journal of Small Business Management, 51(3), 447-465.

Thijs A. & Akker J. van den (Eds) (2009).Curriculum in development. SLO Netherlands Institute for Curriculum Development.