Ecossistemas empreendedores e criação de empresas: o caso do projeto EDP-Semente

Teresa Costa, Nuno Teixeira, Fernando Valente

Resumo


Considerando que, o contexto empresarial atual caracteriza-se por mudanças tecnológicas permanentes e por uma intensa rivalidade competitiva, condicionada pela concorrência internacional, na maioria dos casos com fatores de produção mais baratos, é cada vez mais importante que sejam desenvolvidas ações de promoção e incentivo à cultura empreendedora, que assente sobretudo em fortes vantagens competitivas baseadas na diferenciação.
Nesse enquadramento, o Sines Tecnopolo, em parceria com o Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal e o patrocínio da EDP, desenvolveu um programa de apoio aos empreendedores composto por três fases de intervenção; 1) uma fase formativa com sessões coletivas; 2) uma fase de consultoria individualizada de apoio ao arranque do negócio e 3) uma fase de incubação do negócio.
Assim, este estudo tem como objetivo caracterizar o projeto EDP – Semente, analisando as práticas pedagógicas realizadas e o seu contributo para a dinamização do empreendedorismo, através da criação de negócios por parte dos seus participantes.
Após um enquadramento teórico sobre os principais temas de empreendedorismo é efetuada uma apresentação do projeto, caracterizadas as suas diferentes fases de execução e apresentados e discutidos os resultados alcançados pelo programa.
Os testemunhos dos promotores referem um elevado grau de satisfação com os conteúdos do programa e com os formadores. A segunda fase do programa foi reconhecida pela maioria dos promotores como sendo de muita utilidade, uma vez que o acompanhamento dos formadores é individual e muito incisivo, o que facilita uma aprendizagem, conhecimento e reflexão profunda de cada projeto e negócio. Os promotores apesar de terem consciência do elevado tempo dedicado ao planeamento e à criação do negócio, inserido na fase 2 do projeto (40 horas por promotor), revelaram interesse e destacaram a importância da continuidade da consultoria ao nível do apoio na fase após criação do negócio.


Palavras-chave


empreendedorismo; formação; consultoria; projetos

Texto Completo:

PDF

Referências


Aaboen, L., Lindelof, P., Koch, C., & Loften, H. (2006). Corporate Governance and Performance of Small High-Tech Firms in Sweden. Technovation, 26(8), 955-968.

Aguirre, I., Parellada, F., & Campos, H. (2006). University Spin-off Programmes: How can they Support the NTBF Creation? International Entrepreneurship Management Journal, 2(2), 157-172.

Aldrich, H., & Dubini, P. (1991). Personal and Extend Networks Are Central to the Entrepreneurial Process. Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 6, 305-313.

Almus, M., & Nerlinger, E. (1999). Growth of new technology-based firms: which factors matter? Small Business Economics, 13, 141-154.

Autio E., Kenney, M., Mustar, P., Siegel, D., & Wright, M. (2014). Entrepreneurial innovation: The importance of context. Research Policy, 43, 1097-1108.

Bathula, H., Karia, M., & Abbott, M. (2011). The Role of University-Based Incubators in Emerging Economies. [Working Paper nº 22], Centre for Research in International Education, AIS St. Helens.

Birley, S. (1985). The role of networks in the entrepreneurial process. Journal of Business Venturing, 1(1), 107-117.

Brinckmann, J., Grichnik, D., & Kapsa, D. (2010). Should entrepreneurs plan or just storm the castle? A meta-analysis on contextual factors impacting the business planning-performance relationship in small firms. Journal of Business Venturing, 25, 24–40.

Cohen, B. (2006). Sustainable valley entrepreneurial ecosystems. Business Strategy and the Environment, 5(1), 1-14.

Davidsson, P., & Klofsten M. (2003). The Business Platform: Developing an Instrument to Gauge and to Assist the Development of Young Firms. Journal of Small Business Management, 41(1), 1-26.

De Cleyn, S. (2011). The early development of academic spin-offs: a holistic study on the survival of 185 European product-oriented ventures using a resource-based perspective. Doctoral tesis. University of Antwerp.

Delmar, F., & Shane, S. (2003). Does business planning facilitate the development of new ventures? Strategic Management Journal, 24, 1165-1185.

Drucker, P. (1985). The Practice of Innovation. Innovation and Entrepreneurship Practice and Principles. New York: Harper & Row.

Filion, L.J. (1999). Diferenças entre sistemas gerenciais de empreendedores e operadores de pequenos negócios. Revista de Administração de Empresas ERA, 39(4), 6-20.

Fritsch, M. (2011). New Business Formation and Regional Development: A Survey and Assessment of the Evidence, [Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1127], German Institute for Economic Research, DIW Berlin.

Gartner, W. (1989). Who is an entrepreneur? Is the wrong question. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 13 (4), 47-68.

Grandi, A., & Grimaldi R. (2005). Academic’s Organizational Characteristics and Generation of Successful Business Ideas. Journal of Business Venturing, 20(6), 821- 845.

Greve, A., & Salaff, J. (2003), Social Networks and Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, (28), 1-22.

Gruber, M., MacMillan, I., & Thompson, J. (2008). Look before you leap: market opportunity identification in emerging technology firms. Management Science, 54, 1652-1655.

Hall, P., & Markusen, A. (1985). Silicon Landscapes. Boston: Allen & Unwin.

Isenberg, D. (2011). The entrepreneurship ecosystem strategy as a new paradigm for economy policy: principles for cultivating entrepreneurship, Babson Entrepreneurship Ecosystem Project, Babson College, Babson Park: MA.

Johannisson, B. (1998). Personal networks in emerging knowledge-based firms: spatial and functional patterns. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 10(4), 297-312.

Kantis, H., & Frederico, J. (2011). Entrepreneurial Ecosystems in Latin America: the role of policies. Retrieved Jun, 2017, from: http://www.innovacion.gob.cl/wpcontent/uploads /2012/06/EntrepreneurialEcosystems-in-Latin-America_the-role-of-policies.pdf.

Kirzner, I. (1973). Competition and Entrepreneurship. Chicago. University of Chicago Press.

Lange, J., Bygrave, W., Mollov, A., Pearlmutter, M., & Singh, S. (2005). Do business plans make no difference in the real world? A study of 117 new ventures. In: The 25th annual Babson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference (BCERC), Babson Park, Massachusetts.

Laranja, M. (2007). Uma Nova Política de Inovação em Portugal? A Justificação, o Modelo e os Instrumentos. Coimbra: Edições Almedina.

Lerner, J. (2004). The University and the Start-Up: Lessons from the Past Two Decades. Journal of Technology Transfer, 30 (1-2), 49-56.

Leslie, S., & Kargon, R. (1996). Selling Silicon Valley: Frederick Termin’s Model for Regional Advantage. Business History Review, 70, 435–472.

Li, Y., Wang, X., Huang, L. & Bai, X. (2013). How does entrepreneurs' social capital hinder new business development? A relational embeddedness perspective. Journal of Business Research, 66, 2418-2424.

Liao, J., & Welsch, H. (2005), Roles of social capital in venture creation: Key dimensions and research implications. Journal of Small Business Management, 43(4), 345–362.

McClelland (1972). A sociedade competitiva: realização e progresso social. Rio de Janeiro: Expressão e Cultura.

Link, A., & Scott, J. (2003). U.S. science parks: the diffusion of an innovation and its effects on the academic mission of universities. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 21(9), 1323-1356.

Marques, J., Caraça, J., & Diz, H. (2006). How can university-industry-government interactions change the innovations cenario in Portugal? - The case of the University of Coimbra. Technovation, 26(4), 534-542.

Mason, C., & Stark, M. (2004). What do Investors Look for in a Business Plan? A Comparison of the Investment Criteria of Bankers, Venture Capitalists and Business Angels. International Small Business Journal, 22(3), 227–248.

Miller, R., & Cote, M. (1987). Growing the Next Silicon Valley. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Mosey, S., & Wright, M. (2007). From Human Capital to Social Capital: A Longitudinal Study of Technology-Based Academic Entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31, (6), 909-935.

Neck, H., Meyer, G., Cohen, B., & Corbett, A. C. (2004). An entrepreneurial system view of new venture creation. Journal of Small Business Management, 42, (2), 190-208.

Oliveira, M., Ferreira, J., Qing Ye, Q., & van Geenhuizen, M. (2013). Spin-Up: A Comprehensive Program Aimed to Accelerate University Spin-off Growth. 8th European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship ECIE 2013, Proceedings edited by: Dr. Peter Teirlinck and Stijn Kelchtermans, Hogeschool Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.

Ostgaard, T., & Birley, S. (1996). New venture growth and personal networks. Journal of Business Research, 36(1), 37-501.

Phan, P., Siegel, D., & Wright, M. (2005). Science parks and incubators: observations, synthesis and future research. Journal of Business Venturing, 20, 165-182.

Pigneur, Y., & Osterwalder, A. (2011). Criar Modelos de Negócio. Lisboa: D. Quixote.

Ries, E. (2013). Lean Startup: Como os empreendedores de hoje utilizam inovação contínua para criar negócios de sucesso radical. Lisboa: Prime Books.

Rogers, E., & Larsen, J. (1938). Silicon Valley Fever. New York: Basic Books.

Schumpeter, J. (1934). The Theory of Economic Development. Harvard University Press.

Shane, S., & Venkataramann, S. (2000). The promise of Entrepreneurship as a field research, Academy of Management Review, 25 (1), 217-226.

Timmons, J., & Spinelli, S. (2007). New Venture Creation-Entrepreneurship for the 21st Century. 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Valente, F. (2015). Spin-offs Académicas em Portugal (Tese de doutoramento não publicada). Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.

Van der Sijde, P., & Ridder, A. (2002). Infrastructures for university spin-off programs: An introduction. In Van der Sijde, P., Ridder, A., Gómez, J., Shepherd, J., Galiana, D. e Mira, I. (Eds.), Infrastructures for spin-off companies. Elche, Spain: Universidad Miguel Hernández & European Commission.

Van Geenhuizen, M., & Ye, Q. (2012). Spin-Up Research Report. Spin up Consortium, Technical University of Delft, Netherlands.

Vanhoutte, C., & Sels, L. (2005). An inquiry into the impact of pre start-up business planning on new business ventures’ performance. [Working Paper], Steunpunt OOI, Paper presented at the 2005 RENT Conference, Naples, Italy.

Weber. M. (1930). The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. Translated by Talcott Parson. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.

West III, P., & Bamford, C. (205). Creating a technology-based entrepreneurial economy: A resource based theory perspective. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 34(4), 433-451.