Não há nada a aprender com Sócrates? Epicuro e os amores de Sócrates, segundo Máximo de Tiro

F. Javier Campos Daroca

Resumo


Na 32ª Oração “Sobre o prazer”, de Máximo de Tiro, apresenta‐se uma defesa
do hedonismo em que o Epicuro aparece, em pessoa, a defender o prazer. Nessa defesa,
os casos amorosos de Sócrates são relembrados como exemplo de conduta virtuosa
aliada ao prazer. Neste artigo, será explorado este estranho retrato epicuriano de
Sócrates como exemplo positivo. Argumenta‐se que, para compreender esta descrição de
Sócrates como amante virtuoso, deverão ser tomadas em consideração tendências
anteriores do platonismo, particularmente aquelas que mantiveram viva a relação com a
Academia helenística. Mencionar‐se‐á, em especial, Favorino de Arles, não como fonte
do conteúdo da oração, mas como o autor mais próximo de Máximo, quer no seu
interesse por Sócrates, quer nos processos retóricos (e dialéticos) da sua filosofia.

Palavras-chave


Máximo de Tiro; Sócrates; Epicuro; Favorino de Arles

Texto Completo:

PDF

Referências


ACOSTA MENDEZ, E. & ANGELI, A. (1992), Filodemo. Testimonianze su Socrate.

Naples, Bibliopolis.

AMATO, E. (2005), Favorinos d’Arles, OEuvres, vol. I: Introduction générale,

Témoignages, Discours aux corinthiens, Sur la Fortune. Paris, Les Belles Lettres.

AMATO, E. (2010), Favorinos d’Arles, OEuvres, vol. III: Fragments. Paris, Les

Belles Lettres.

ANGELI, A. (1981), “I frammenti di Idomeneo de Lampsaco”: CErc 11 (1981)

‐101.

BARIGAZZI, A. (1966), Favorino di Arelate. Opere. Florence, Felice Le Monnier.

BIGNONE, E. (2007), L’Aristotele perduto e la formazione filosofica di Epicuro.

Milan, Bompiani. (Reissue of the second edition, Milan, 1973).

BONAZZI, M. (2003), Accademici e Platonici Il dibattito antico sullo scetticismo di

Platone. Milan, LED Edizioni Universitarie.

BRANCACCI, A. (1993), “Érotique et théorie du plaisir chez Antisthène”:

M. O. GOULET‐CAZE (ed.), Le Cynisme ancien et ses prolongements. Paris,

Presses Universitaires de France, 35‐55.

BRITTAIN, Ch. (2001), Philo of Larissa. The Last of the Academic Sceptics. Oxford,

Oxford University Press.

CLAY, D. (2003), “The Trial of Socrates in Herculaneum”: CErc 33 (2003)

‐100.

COOPER, J. M. (2006), “Arcesilaus as Socratic and Sceptic”: L. JUDSON, & V.

KARASMANIS (eds.), Remembering Socrates. Philosophical Essays. Oxford,

Oxford University Press, 169‐189.

DILLON, J. (19962), The Middle Platonist. A Study of Platonism 80 B.C. to A.D.

London, Duckworth.

DÖRING, K. (1973), Exemplum Socratis. Studien zur Sokratesnachwirkung in der

kynisch‐stoischen Popularphilosophie der frühen Kaiserzeit und im frühen

Christentum. Wiesbaden, Steiner.

FOLLET, S. (2000), “Favorinus d’Arles”: R. GOULET (ed.), Dictionnaire des

Philosophes Antiques, III. Paris, CNRS Éditions, 418‐422.

FOWLERS, R. (2010), “The Second Sophistic”: LL. GERSON (ed.), The Cambridge

History of Philosophy in Late Antiquity. Cambridge, Cambridge University

Press, 100‐114.

GLUCKER, J. (1978), Antiochus and the Late Academy. Göttingen, Vandenhoeck

& Ruprecht.

GLUCKER, J. (1997), “Socrates in Cicero”: B. INWOOD & J. MANSFELD (ed.),

Assent and Argument. Studies in Cicero’s Academic Books. Leiden, Brill, 58‐88.

GÖRLER, W. (1994), “Älterer Pyrrhonismus – Jüngere Akademie, Antiochos

aus Askalon, § 47 Arkesilaos”: H. FLASHAR (ed.), Die Philosophie der

Antike vol 4.2: Die hellenistische Philosophie. Basel, Verlag Scheidegger and

Spiess, 796‐824.

GOULET‐CAZE, M. O. (1986), L’ascèse cynique. Un commentaire de Diogène

Laërce, VI 70‐71. Paris, Librairie Philosophique Vrin.

HAHN, J. (1989), Der Philosoph und die Gesellschaft. Selbstverständniss,

öffentliches Auftreten und populäre Erwartungen in der hohen Kaiserzeit.

Stuttgart, F. Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden.

HEUSCH, C. (2005), “Die Ethopoiie in der griechischen und lateinischen

Antike: von der rhetorischen Progymnasma‐Theorie zur literarischen

Form”: E. AMATO & J. SCHAMP (eds.), ΗΘΟΠΟΙΙΑ. La représentation de

caractères entre fiction scolaire et réalité vivante à l’époque impériale et tardive.

Salerno, Helios Editrice, 11‐33.

HUBY, P. M. (1978), “Epicurus’ attitude to Democritus”: Phronesis 23 (1978)

‐86.

HUNTER, R. (2012), Plato and the Traditions of Literature. The Silent Stream.

Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

IOPPOLO, A. M. (1993), “The Academic Position of Favorinus of Arelate”:

Phronesis 38.2 (1993) 112‐213.

IOPPOLO, A. M. (1995), “Socrate nelle tradizione Accademico‐scettica e

Pirroniana”: G. GIANNANTONI, M. GIGANTE, E. MARTENS, A. M. IOPPOLO

& K. DÖRING (eds.), La tradizione socratica. Naples, Bibliopolis, 89‐123.

KECHAGIA, E. (2011), Plutarch against Colotes. A Lesson in History of

Philosophy. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

KLEVE, K. (1983), “Scurra Atticus: the Epicurean View of Socrates”: AA. VV.

(ed.), ΣΥΖΗΤΗΣΙΣ. Studi sull’epicureismo greco e romano offerti a Marcello

Gigante. Naples, Gaetano Macchiaroli, vol. 1, 227‐253.

KONIARIS, G. L. (1982), “On Maximus of Tyre: Zetemata (I)”: CA 1 (1982)

‐121.

KONIARIS, G. L. (1983), “Maximus of Tyrus: Zetemata (II)”: CA 2.2 (1983)

‐250.

LAUWERS, J. (2009) “The Rhetoric Of Pedagogical Narcissism: Philosophy,

Philotimia and Self‐Display in Maximus of Tyre’s First Oration”: CQ 59

(2009) 593‐607.

LONG, A. A. (1988), “Socrates in Hellenistic Philosophy”: CQ 38 (1988)

‐171 (collected in (1996) Stoic Studies. Cambridge, Cambridge

University Press, 1‐34).

LONG, A. A. (1986), “Diogenes Laertius, Life of Arcesilaus”: Elenchos 7

(1986) 429‐449.

LONG A. A. (2010), “Socrates in Late Greek Philosophy”: D. R. MORRISON

(ed.), Cambridge Companion to Socrates. Cambridge, Cambridge University

Press, 345‐379.

MUTCHMANN, H. (1917), “Das erste Auftreten des Maximus von Tyr in

Rom”: Sokrates 5 (1917) 185‐197.

OPSOMER, J. (1998), In Search of the Truth. Academic Tendences in Middle

Platonism. Brussel, Koninklijke Academie voor Wetenschappen, Letteren

en Schone Kunsten van Belgie.

PUIGGALI, J. (1983), Études sur les Dialexeis de Maxime de Tyre, conferencier

platonicien du IIème siècle. Lille, Université de Lille III.

RILEY, M. T. (1980) “The Epicurean Criticism of Socrates”: Phoenix 34 (1980)

‐68.

ROSKAM, G. (2011), “Reading fables in Epicurus’ Garden. On Metrodorus fr.

K.”: CErc 41 (2011) 33‐36.

ROSKAM, G. (2014), “Socratic Love in Neoplatonism”: D. A. LAYNE & H.

TARRANT (eds.), The Neoplatonic Socrates. Philadelphia, University of

Pennsylvania, 21‐35.

SANDYS, G. (1997), The Greek World of Apuleius and the Second Sophistic.

Leiden, Brill Academic.

SCOGNAMILO, F. (1997), Massimo de Tiro. L’arte erotica di Socrate, edizione

critica, traduzione e commento a cura di F.S. LECCE, Congedo.

SEDLEY, D. (1976), “Epicurus and his professional rivals”: J. BOLLACK & A.

LAKS (eds.), Études sur l’épicurisme antique. Lille, Publications De

lʹUniversité De Lille III, 119‐159.

SEDLEY, D. (2012), “Antiochus as historian of philosophy”: D. SEDLEY (ed.),

The Philosophy of Antiochus. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press,

‐103.

SEGOLONI, L. M. (1994), Socrate a banchetto. Il Simposio di Platone e i

Banchettanti di Aristofane. Roma, Gruppo Editoriale Int.

SHIFFMAN, M. (2010), “Erotic Wisdom and the Socratic Vocation in

Plutarch’s Platonic Questions I”: GRBS 50 (2010) 243‐271.

SYKUTRIS, J. (1931), “Sokratikerbriefe”: Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen

Altertumswissenschaft (RE). Supplementband V, Stuttgart 1931, Sp. 981–987.

TARRANT, H. (1996), “Platonic Interpretation in Aulus Gellius”: GBRS 37. 2

(1996) 173‐193.

TARRANT, H. (2013), “Improvement by Love: from Aeschines to the Old

Academy”: M. JOHNSON & H. TARRANT (eds.), Alcibiades and the Socratic

Lover‐educator. Bristol, Bristol Classical Press, 147‐163.

THORSRUD, H. (2009), Ancient Scepticism. Stocksfield, Acumen.

TRAPP, M. B. (1994), Maximi Tyrii Dissertationes. Stuttgart‐Leipzig, Teubner.

TRAPP, M. B. (1997), Maximus of Tyrus. The philosophical orations. Oxford,

Clarendon Press.

TRAPP, M. (2007a), “Apuleius of Madauros and Maxime de Tyre”: R. W.

SHARPLES, R. SORABJI (eds.), Greek and Roman Philosophy, 100 BC‐200 AC.

London, Institute of Classical Studies, 407‐482.

TRAPP, M. (2007b), “Beyond Plato and Xenophon: some other ancient

Socrateses”: M. TRAPP (ed.), Socrates from Antiquity to the Enlightement.

London, Ashgate, 51‐63.

VANDER WAERDT, P. (1982), “Colotes and the Epicurean Refutation of

Skepticism”: GBRS 30 (1982) 253‐259.

WOLFSDORF, D. (2008), “Hesiod, Prodicus and the Socratics on Work and

Pleasure”: OSAPh 35 (2008) 1‐18.




A revista Ágora. Estudos Clássicos em Debate está indexada em: Arts and Humanities Citation Index – ISI Web of Knowledge | LATINDEX | QUALIS | SCOPUS | EBSCO Publishing